Digital innovation af folkeskolernes åbenhed og sammenlignelighed: Binære modellers endeligt?

Andersen, K. N., Henriksen, H. Z. and Nielsen, J. A. (2013).

Politica, Vol. 45 (3), pp. 287-306.

Denne artikel præsenterer en normativ model (Public Sector Process Rebuilding, PPR), som kan indfange, hvor innovativt offentlige organisationer anvender di¬gitale løsninger. Optag af digital innovation anskues ofte i litteraturen binært – enten er innovationen anskaffet eller ikke anskaffet. Vores argument er imidlertid, at optag af digitale innovationer kan gradbøjes. Vores sigte er derfor at få fokus væk fra anskaffelse og mere i retning af udnyttelse af digitaliseringen med henblik på at skabe forbedring af kerneydelserne og gavne slutbrugerne. Med empirisk afsæt i danske folkeskolers tolkning af lovkrav om åbenhed i uddannelserne og specifikt offentliggørelse af karakterer på internettet illustrerer vi, hvorledes PPR-modellen kan være med til at synliggøre graden af digital innovation eller mangel på samme. Det empiriske grundlag for artiklens analyse er dels en screening af 200 folkeskolers hjemmesider, dels 25 interviews med skoleledere, medarbejdere og forældrerepræsentanter i skolebestyrelser. Analysen viser, at skolerne er tilbageholdene med offentliggørelse af karakterer på internettet, og at størstedelen af skolerne ikke lever fuldt ud op til lovens krav. Indplacering af 200 skoler på PPR-modellens modenhedsniveauer gav således en meget skæv fordeling med 12 pct. på modellens to øverste trin og 75 pct. på modellens nederste trin. Interviews klargjorde, at centrale aktører i skolernes ledelse ikke mener, at offentliggørelse af karakterer er eller bør være i fokus for skolernes brug af internettet.

Social Media in Public Health care: Impact Domain Propositions

Andersen, K. N., Medaglia, R. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2012).

Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 29 (4), pp. 462-469.

This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns.

In the Beginning was the CCR: The very first use of IT in the Public Sector in Denmark

Henriksen, H. Z. (2012).

In Proceedings of Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Trauner Verlag Schritenreihe Informatik, Vol. 39, pp. 13-20.

IT in public sector is studied from various perspectives. But common for most studies is a focus on latest developments rather than on the foundations and the long history which forms the basis for IT in public sector today. Based on interviews with three retired informants who had a long career working with IT in or for government reflections are reported. The reflections present a rich picture of how the Danish public sector laid its foundation for e-government. It deepens the knowledge of how development of IT in public sector was planned and managed some forty years ago. The study is based on positive organizational scholarship where informants were encouraged to provide their positive accounts of experiences with IT in the public sector.

Gate-Keeping in the Age of Information Society; Online GPA Data in Lower Secondary Schools

Andersen, K. N., Henriksen, H. Z., Medaglia, R., Carlsen, M. H. and Sløk, C. (2012).

Paper presented at the 34th EGPA Annual Conference, 2012, Bergen, Norway, 5-8 Sep.

Despite ten years of direct regulation, our study of Danish lower secondary schools shows that they do not provide online access to the GPA for individual public schools (N=1,592). Using Lipsky’s gate-keeping theory, we investigate the lack of data provision as indicator not only of professionals’ being reluctant to accept imposed standards and control from central level (top-down) but also avoiding demands from parents (and children) on transparency and accountability (bottom-up). The lack of accessibility of grades on the web can thus be seen as a classical gate-keeping mechanism evolving in the age of information society where expectations of end-of-gatekeeping by providing accessibility and transparency using information systems has been outnumbered by classical forces of gate-keeping.

Are enterprise system benefits the same for universities as they are for supermarkets?

Leonard, J. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2011).

Advances in Enterprise Information Systems II: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems (CONFENIS 2011). ed. Charles Møller; Sohail Chaudhry. Boca Raton, FL : C R C Press LLC 2012, p. 291-302.

Enterprise Systems have become the default support systems for business processes in commercial organisations. Their promise of increased efficiency and effectiveness fits well with profit-based strategic objectives, and can be linked directly to customer choice. The last fifteen years have seen extensive implementation of Enterprise Systems in the University sector. While efficiency and effectiveness may be important in this sector, they are not linked directly to customer choice – the concept of a customer is complex, and choices may include many influences which are unaffected by administrative processes. Using one Australian and one Danish University as examples, an analysis of the benefits from using Enterprise Systems in Universities and in supermarkets is undertaken. There are some differences in the nature of those benefits. More importantly, differences in links between those benefits and the effect on customer choice are pronounced, with significant impacts for research and practical implications of Enterprise Systems.

Public Sector IS Maturity Models, Legal Pluralism Invades Public Schools

Henriksen, H. Z., Andersen, K. N. and Medaglia, R. (2011).

Lecture notes in computer science / vol. 6846.

Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online citizen-public interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale and frequency of the interaction between citizens and government will challenge our concepts of maturity.

Frequency and Costs of Communication with Citizens in Local Government

Andersen, K. N., Medaglia, R. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2011).

Lecture notes in computer science / vol. 6866.

This paper addresses the frequency and costs of local government-citizen communication in five channels (physical meetings, postal mails, phone calls, e-mail and online self service. Considered to be among the advanced countries with regards to supply of e-services, our analysis shows a surprisingly low use of transactions in the Danish local government. Also, our estimate is that email costs are higher than phone call costs and that there is substantial room for advancing our knowledge of the costs of e-services.

The forgotten promise of e-government maturity: Assessing responsiveness in the digital public sector

Andersen, K. N., Medaglia, R., Vatrapu, R., Henriksen, H. Z. and Gauld, R.

Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 28(4), pp. 439-445.

Assessing e-government responsiveness is one of the major gaps in the currently dominant e-government maturity models. While we have a relatively large pool of models focusing on technological and organizational integration from a supply side perspective, measures of responsiveness of e-government systems from a user perspective are still lacking. Replicating a study from New Zealand and Australia, this study explores the response time and quality of e-mail response in Danish local and central governments (N = 175). Despite that Denmark is high ranking in international benchmark studies, we find that one third of central government agencies did not respond at all, and close to 80% of the ministries provided none or incomplete answers. Local government responds faster and provides answers that are more complete and accurate than those provided by central government. Implications for e-government are discussed.

Inscription of behaviour and flexible interpretation in Information Infrastructures: The case of European e-Customs

Henningsson, S. and Henriksen, H. Z.

Journal of Strategic Information Systems.

Despite the increasing importance of large IT-based solutions binding actors and processes together across institutional borders, still little is known about how these Information Infrastructures (IIs) assume their shapes and potentially may be reshaped towards specific ends. We focus on the duality of organizations using the IT artefacts of the European e-Customs IIs to inscribe harmonised behaviour into the operation of the infrastructure and how the IT artefacts are divergently interpreted by the users of the II. We find a tension between the need for artefacts with strong inscription to regulate the II and a need for flexibility for II users. The consequence is diluted inscriptions and, in contradiction to what has previously been concluded about interpretative flexibility, the European e-Customs II does not show signs of settling down in a stable phase with consensus. This lack of stability forces the users of the European e-Customs II to continously modify and investment in IT participate in the infrastructure, explaining an expressed longing for the ‘good old paper days’. Based on theoretical integration and empirical findings, we develop a model of the duality of inscription and interpretation in IIs.

To have IT or not to have IT

Henriksen, H. Z. and Rukanova, B.

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy.

Purpose: The objective of this research is to study the significance of technology - both as a driver as well as a barrier - for eCustoms implementation. eCustoms is here seen as a subset of e-government because it deals with digital government-to-business interaction. Design-methodology approach: The study applies the syntegration process (Beer, 1994) as a method of knowledge exchange among a heterogeneous group of people involved in eCustoms implementation. The research methodology is therefore a qualitative, explorative and inductive search for drivers and barriers. Findings: Our data suggest that technology is seen more as a means rather than an end in relation to eCustoms implementation. Legal, regulatory, and policy factors, as well as human and organizational factors are suggested to be of similar importance.

Fads and Facts of E-Government: A Review of Impacts of E-government (2003-2009)

Andersen, K. N., Henriksen, H. Z, Medaglia, R., Danziger, J. N., Sannarnes, M. K., and Enemærke, M.

International Journal of Public Administration.

This paper analyzes the impacts of e-government as reported in 55 first-hand empirical peer-reviewed journal publications during the period 2003-2009, using a conceptual framework to identify ICT (information and communication technology) impacts on four domains within the public sector: capabilities, interactions, orientations and value distribution. The analysis shows that research findings mostly report positive impacts in all four dimensions. In the empirical research, the majority of impacts from ICT are reported within the domain of capabilities, which is also the domain that features the most balanced mix of positive and negative findings. Findings show that although e-government has elements that make it different from previous use of ICT in public administration, research on e-government is yet to demonstrate a substantial shift in the nature and directions of impacts in comparison to earlier studies.

One Inch Wide and One Inch Deep: The Role of Policies in Shaping the Adoption of Open Standards and Software in Government

Andersen, K. N., Veit, D., Medaglia, R. and Henriksen, H. Z.

Proceedings of EGOVIS 2010; Lecture notes in computer science - vol. 6267, pp. 100-107.

This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative study on the role of policies in Denmark and Germany in shaping the adoption of open standards and software in government. A comprehensive functionality test, surveys and interviews with suppliers and users in local authorities of both countries have been conducted, together with policy document analyses. While in Denmark open document standards have been bindingly introduced by legislation, Germany adopts a blended top-down and bottom-up approach, only providing recommendations. Although, as a result, it seems that Denmark ranks much higher in the adoption of open document standards, the overall picture is blurrier, as for instance only a small minority of public employees use open source software. The authors also suggest that the need for open standards might actually be overstated, as the rapid adoption of e.g. the PDF document format has made it in practice almost irrelevant.

Food Living Lab - Complexity of Export Trade

Henningsson, S., Bjørn-Andersen, N., Schmidt, A., Flügge, B. and Henriksen, H. Z.

In Accelerating Global Supply Chains with IT-Innovation.

The Food Living Lab (Food LL) was a research project centred on export of dairy products. Dairy products are organic products that are intended as human food. As such, when they are exported, dairy products become the concern of a wide range of governmental agencies. Apart from customs, agencies for health, veterinary, agriculture, taxation, and statistics put information requirements on the dairy exporter. With Arla Foods as case company, the Food LL made a descriptive investigation on the total information requirements and associated administrative burden on a pan-European exporter of dairy products. The Food LL outlined a scenario that would keep or even improve the control of Arla’s export process but significantly lower the administrative burden put on the trader. The new scenario was built upon the idea of all actors using a common data model and a central hub for information exchange instead of setting up non-aligned connections between all information exchanging actors. Using a common data model following the UN/CEFACT guidelines for data modelling and a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), the Food LL developed a software prototype that serves as a proof of concept, verifying that the envisioned scenario meets all requirements.

Understanding the influence of multiple levels of governments on the development of inter-organizational systems

Rukanova, B., van Stijn, E., Henriksen, H. Z., Baida, Z. and Tan, Y-H.

European Journal of Information Systems.

In the arena of international trade, multiple levels of governments (ranging from national to supranational) play an important role in regulating and controlling cross-border trade activities. Recently, they have also become powerful players in influencing decisions about inter-organizational systems (IOS). The influences of these multiple levels of governments on IOS are of an enormous scale and impact on businesses and national economies. Understanding them is a prerequisite for informed actions. From a theoretical point of view we contribute with the MLxMC framework, a conceptual framework, which combines a processual, multi-level approach with the motors of change. We use the MLxMC framework to explicitly highlight the influences of multiple levels of governments on IOS developments that take place in the highly regulated environment of international trade. We demonstrate how the framework can be applied to analyze such developments, extending the existing IOS research with models that explicitly acknowledge the role of government. The framework makes use of multi-level analysis by taking the political and institutional aspects into account. As an analytical tool, the framework can support business practitioners as well as policy-makers in their strategic choices of which level to engage at and with whom to collaborate in order to influence the debate.

Pacta Sunt Servanda but Where Is the Agreement?: The Complicated Case of eCustoms

Henriksen, H. Z., Rukanova, B. and Tan, Y-H. (2008).

In proceedings of the 7th International Conference, EGOV 2008 Turin, Italy, August 31 - September 5, 2008.

This paper examines the role of regulation in eCustoms. We made use of a novel methodological approach, syntegration, to obtain the views of experts from government, businesses, technology providers and academics about barriers and drivers of eCustoms imlementation. During the syntegration workshop, regulation was perceived as both a barrier and a driver and in this paper we present the arguments of the participants on this issue. In our analysis, we attempt to discuss the practical value from the syntegration workshop by reflecting on the power of regulation when we move from a national to an international context which is the arena for eCustoms regulation. Our conclusion is that although at a national level regulation can be a powerful instrument for eCustoms implementation, the power of regulation fades to recommendations and soft law the more we move to an international level, and thus, making it a less powerful instrument for eCustoms implementation.

A Sad Story: The Case of Constrained Infrastructures Caused by IT

Henningsson, S. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2009).

In proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS).

Customs is one domain which has faced the need for information systems in a globalizing world. In customs there is a need for close collaboration between business and government in order to build robust technological infrastructures supporting processes related to export and import of goods. This has led to a move towards eCustoms. This case study reports from a longitudinal study of a Danish exporter which has faced the challenges of implementing eCustoms in its daily operations. The introduction of eCustoms to replace the existing customs infrastructure based on the Single Administrative Document (SAD) has led to new challenges for the Danish exporter such as de-standardized procedures and increased reporting. The particular contribution of the study is the observed longing to the "good old paper-based days" where things were more standardized than after the digitalization of the processes. The study is interpreted through the lens of "double infrastructures". The underlying assumption guiding the study is that eCustoms represents one infrastructure on top of another well established infrastructure of global trade.

Public Value and Multi-channel eService delivery

Henriksen, H. Z. (2008).

This Think Paper considers how multi-channel service provision can be an instrument for exit from social exclusion. The focus in not on the technical channels, or the intermediaries who can work with socially excluded people - these issues are assessed in other Think Papers. Here the issues are analyzed through the lens of Public Value, which has particular importance in assessing the impact of multi-channel service provision, because there often are not direct and substantial monetary cost-benefits.

Brugerdreven innovation: Borgerens eget CO2 regnskab

Rasmussen, E. B. og Henriksen, H. Z. (2009).

Håndbog i klimaledelse, Forlaget Andersen.

Brugerdreven innovation indenfor klimaområdet kan skabe en ny bølge af innovation og vækst i Danmark, men at det kræver, at både virksomheder og forvaltningen har fokus på innovation og skaber innovationsprocesser, der systematisk afsøger og understøtter de innovative tilgange som brugerne selv skaber og fanger nye behov hos borgerne. Hvad hvis forbrugerne kunne få oplysninger om dagligvarers CO2-regnskab hele vejen fra producenterne til indkøbsvognen? Hvis borgerne kunne få tilgang til data om deres klimabelastning af den fysiske infrastruktur? Hvad hvis borgerne nemt kunne holde øje med deres eget private CO2-regnskab - og dele "bæredygtige" ideer med andre? Er den nødvendige IT infrastruktur og teknologi tilgængelig? Er forbrugerne, virksomhederne og forvaltningen parate til det? Denne artikel giver bud på, hvordan det kunne gøres, og hvilke forudsætninger der skal opfyldes. Spørgsmålet er, om der et politisk ønske om at få mobiliseret brugerne som en del af en samfundsmæssig innovationsproces, som klimahensyn har sat på dagsorden?

Globalization and E-commerce: Environment and Policy in Denmark

Andersen, K. V., Bjørn-Andersen, N., & Henriksen, H. Z. (2003).

Communications of the AIS (CAIS), vol. 10, article 7/ July.

The diffusion of e-commerce in Denmark is mainly a result of a partnership between government and industry initiatives, rather than being purely market- or government-led. While environmental factors are important enablers of e-commerce diffusion, government policy aims to be a key driving force. Although the size of government is substantial and the list of policy instruments is extensive, there is a serious question about whether the governments' efforts to stimulate use within the society (business, consumers, and government itself) are sufficient to stimulate diffusion of e-commerce adequately. Our analysis questions the effectiveness of the government-led approach because of its timing, its lack of coordinated actions, and the mixed motives of government actions, in particular at the European Community level. Our analysis also found serious structural barriers such as high marginal income taxation and a limited supply of qualified labor. Contributing to the limited labor supply are strict immigration policies and late entry into the labor market (college graduates enter the job market at the mean age of 29). Adding to the structural problems is the lack of large hightech manufacturing companies that can function as locomotives, as well as an insufficient equity and venture funding market. The Danish national e-commerce strategy is focused on rapid adoption, implementation, and exploitation of e-commerce in all sectors of the economy, rather than a production-led strategy. The official goals of the Danish government are to make IT available to all citizens and to be among the top five IT-using nations in the world. Although our analysis points to a high level of diffusion of the technologies that, in principle could enable e-commerce, actual exploitation is lagging behind the lavish display of technology.

Diffusion of E-Commerce in Denmark: An Analysis of Institutional Intervention

Henriksen, H.Z. and Andersen, K.V. (2004).

Knowledge, Technology, and Policy (KTP), vol. 17, issue 2/ Summer, pp. 63-81.

This article analyzes the way a series of recent policy-statements have been used to promote and shape the take-up of e-commerce in Denmark. Issuing periodic policy-statements, with a combination of direct and indirect modes of intervention, is one of the roads governments are taking to influence the evolutions of ICT. The policy statements present the goals, launch initiatives, and assess achievements. Complementing a co- or self-regulation strategy, the policy statement approach has become particularly important in areas where governments seek to influence the take-up of a technology without appearing to tip the scales.

The First Leg of E-government Research: Domains and Application Areas 1998-2003

Andersen, K. V. & Henriksen, H. Z. (2005).

International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 1(4).

A comprehensive analysis of 110 peer-reviewed journal papers published from 1998 to 2003 suggests that the conceptual domains and application areas covered by e-government research focus predominantly on capabilities and interactions, whereas value distributions and policy orientations are largely ignored. Onwards, e-government research is more concerned with conceptualizing government and e-services than in exploring the governmental role in technology diffusion and the role IT plays in democracy and participation. This orientation of the current research body is an indicator that the legacy of IS research themes dominates the public administration research body and that interdisciplinary research involving core public administration research along with IS research is yet to emerge. It is proposed that the field could be more unified if it considered both the e and the government of e-government.

E-procurement adoption in the Danish public sector: The influence of economic and political rationality

Henriksen, H.Z. and Mahnke, V. (2005).

Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 17(2), pp. 85-106.

E-procurement is on the political agenda throughout Europe. Denmark was among the forerunners in Europe, but the adoption of the public e-procurement portal (PePP) has been slow. In this paper, we use the lens of economic and political rationality to discuss and analyze possible explanations for slow adoption rates. We find that despite awareness of potential efficiency gains of IT in public procurement functions, political-structural factors slow down the adoption process. We suggest that while the awareness of economic factors stressing efficiency of e-procurement is a necessary condition for PePP adoption, enabling faster adoption requires considering and addressing political-structural factors that are specific to a particular political and administrative context.

Motivators for IOS Adoption in Denmark

Henriksen, H. Z. (2006).

Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 4(2), pp. 25-39, April-June.

Organizational adoption of innovations does not always follow easily comprehensible patterns. This is often the case with interorganizational information systems (IOS), where adoption is dependent on attributes related both to the organization and to its environment. The present study operationalizes the Tornatzky and Fleischer (1990) model for organizational adoption in order to investigate reasons for adoption and non-adoption among businesses in the Danish steel and machinery industry. This particular industry segment had been subject to massive information campaigns focusing on the benefits of IOS in the form of EDI from business associations. The study suggests that environmental and organizational attributes rather than technological attributes are the main determining forces for adoption of EDI.

E-Government Maturity Models: Extension of the Layne and Lee Model

Andersen, K. V. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2006).

Government Information Quarterly, 23(2), pp. 236-248.

The article proposes a reorientation of the e-government maturity models by focusing IT applications to improve the core activities and bring end-users as the key stakeholders for future e-government investments. The proposed Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model is an extension of the Layne and Lee model.

Fad or Investment in the Future - An Analysis of the Demand of e-Services in Danish Municipalities

Henriksen, H. Z. (2006).

Electronic Journal of e-Government, 4(2), pp. 19-26.

The Internet has created a new window for citizens to interact with the pubic sector through the means of electronic services (e-services). Municipalities throughout the Western world are competing to offer as many e-services as possible and several studies have explored the contents and nature of e-services for citizens. Most of these studies have dealt with the possibilities and reach of e-services. The present study applies a demand perspective focusing on which e-services citizens actually use. The use of e-services during the period May 2004 to October 2004 is analyzed based on log-files from the largest Danish provider of municipal e-services. The study fuels a discussion of whether or not the offerings of municipal offering of e-services are driven by technology fads or if they are exponents of an investment in the future that aim at improving the quality of life of citizens.

Dawn of e-government - An institutional analysis of seven initiatives and their impact

Henriksen, H. Z. And Damsgaard, J. (2007).

Journal of Information Technology, 22(1), pp. 13-23.

Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest Danish initiative implemented to stimulate e-government adoption. The e-Day initiative simply yet powerfully states that ‘one governmental authority has the right to demand that its communication with another authority must be in electronic format’ which is expected to create ripple effects both internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental agencies, but the e-Day initiative marked a departure from that strategy and the carrot has been exchanged by the whip, and the voice is imperative.

Costs of e-participation - The management challenges

Andersen, K. V., Henriksen, H. Z., Secher, C and Medaglia, R. (2007).

Transforming government, 1(1), pp. 29-43.

The use of digital media to consult and engage citizens and companies in the decision-making process is a way of improving the design and legitimatization of decisions, as well as potentially increasing the likelihood of successful implementation of policies. This paper discusses if the potential economic benefits from increased or qualitatively improved involvement inherently are long term and have to compete with other activities undertaken by government.

Internetbased EDIFACT-trade documents for Danish SMEs: An analysis of the pre-implementation phase

Henriksen, H.Z. and Andersen, K.V. (1999).

Proceedings of the 12th International Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Slovenia.

The Danish Trade Document Project (TDP) has during the period 1998 developed a Internet-based EDIFACT-software for SMEs organized in the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Danish Chamber of Commerce. Two main contractors - Aalborg Industries and Danfoss Hydraulik - outsourced the Internet-EDI software to an independent, small contractor, rather than signing up with one of the established vendors or in-house developers. In the formed workgroup the focus has been on developing the software to achieve a reduction in costs and improved business performances. The pre-implementation process is characterized as a off-the-shelf process, with the organizational roles are might be refined in the process, but personnel and training issues are not considered.

Can Coordinated IT Projects Lead to Diffusion? A Casestudy of an EDI Project

Henriksen, H.Z. (2000).

Proceedings of IRIS23, Lingatan, Sweden.

During the last three decades, the diffusion of EDI has been sparse. Thought the users of EDI has recognized several benefits, the drawbacks identified still seem to play an important role. In order to prepare their members for the environment of business-to-business electronic commerce, The Confederation of Danish Industries and The Danish Chamber of Commerce introduced a pilot project on EDI among members of the steel and machinery industry, This paper describes the outcome of the pilot project. Based on eight in depth interviews among the participants in the EDI pilot project the paper concludes that coordinated efforts do not necessarily lead to adoption and implementation of an innovation.

E-commerce in the public sector: Managerial Challenges in Homecare Service

Andersen, K. V., & Henriksen, H. Z. (2000).

Proceedings of the Second Electronic Grocery Shopping (EGS) Conference (pp. 10-22). Charlotte, NC.

In the paper we propose three perspectives on the adoption process of e-commerce in the municipality. At the extreme, the adoption of e-commerce is interpreted from a process view, as a mean to transform the municipality to the 21st century information society. Second, we identify an objective perspective. The municipality indeed had an objective and specified success criteria and used primarily these to get political acceptance for the e-commerce involvement. Third, the e-commerce involvement can be viewed as a matter of power and positioning among the neighboring municipalities, the various departments and among the business partners. The paper point to three overall managerial challenges for the municipality and the partners involved in the project. The first centers on the role of IT and reasonable expectations to the outcome of the electronic grocery shopping overture. The second issue relates to the blurring conceptual models of value chain. The third major challenge is to cash on the experiences with the grocery shopping and to expand the digitalization to other areas of the public service.

In Search on an Efficient EDIcebreaker: Use of Electronic Marketplaces for the Diffusion of EDI among SMEs

Henriksen, H.Z. (2001).

Ardis, M.A. and Marcolin, B.L. (eds.) Diffusing Software Product and Process Innovations, proceedings of IFIP TC8 WG 8.6. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Although EDI is considered to be an old technology, many firms have invested considerable resources in EDI. During the last decades, SMEs have implemented EDI in order to meet the demands of their business partners. However, the SMEs do not derive the full benefit of their investments because they use EDI with too few business partners. One problem in this context is that the EDI users are invisible and isolated to each other. With the common use of the Internet among businesses, electronic marketplaces become increasingly accessible. This paper suggests that a solution to the problem of the isolated EDI users can be found within electronic marketplaces. As for the bilateral EDI and the multilateral electronic marketplaces they have two characteristics in common: (1) both are based on electronic data transactions over telecommunication networks, and (2) both have so far proven to be most suitable for commodities and standardized products.

The Perceived Benefits of B2B e-commerce among Users in the Danish Steel and Machinery Industry

Henriksen, H.Z. and Andersen, K.V. (2001).

Proceedings of IRIS24, Ulvik, Norway.

This paper explores a set of possible benefits related to EDI and e-commerce. The benefits were by large formulated by business associations. The paper reveals that EDI and B2B e-commerce are overall evaluated as beneficial among the users in the Danish steel and machinery industry. The clearest benefits are found among the EDI-users, whereas the users of e-commerce are less optimistic. Among nine surveyed factors, improved service and eased routines were evaluated most beneficial among both EDI and B2B e-commerce users. Also, the study reveals a correspondence with regards to the perception of benefits between the business associations and the users of the technology.

Old Wine on Old Bottles: Conceptualizing Motivators for Adoption of IOS through Well-known Adoption Models

Henriksen, H.Z. (2002).

Proceedings of IRIS25, Kulhuse, Denmark.

Why do some organizations adopt IOS while others hesitate? This issue has caught attention among IS researchers for decades. During the last decade the need for IOS has increased due to the major attention on e-businesses, where IOS is a prerequisite if organizations are to derive benefits from their investments in hardware and software supporting e-business. In order to understand the mechanisms determining the rate of organizational adoption of technological innovations related to IOS this paper focuses on identifying a model, which is capable of capturing the elements that have to be considered. The paper argues in favor of a double domain motivation model (DDMM), which includes an operational and an interpretive level. These two levels can be used to identify motivators leading to IOS adoption, thereby help to understand the processes involved in IOS adoption.

The MTO-Framework for Implementation of eBusiness Models

Larsen, M.H. & Henriksen, H.Z. & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2002).

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Electronic Business (ICEB 2002). December 11-13, Taipei, Taiwan.

Venture capitalists typically require that you can explain the business model in the time it takes the lift to get to the tenth floor. Implementation typically takes years. There is a disproportionate large amount of focus on what constitutes an innovative new business model compared to implementation since most e-business failures are attributed to failures in implementation. Obviously, there is a significant lack of knowledge of factors leading to successful implementation among those responsible for practical implementation of e-business models. E-business models or IT-systems for inter-organizational purposes cannot be implemented exclusively following the traditional guidelines in the IS/IT literature. Development methods are very different from earlier, there are many more stakeholders, and the environment is much more dynamic. The paper suggests a framework highlighting important implementation factors derived from four different disciplines; venture capitalist experiences, business process reengineering, diffusion theory and system development. The contribution of the paper is a classification of implementation factors in a framework that identifies the technological, the organizational, and the market related factors relevant for implementation of e-business models.

A Managerial Perspective on Implementation of e-Business Models

Larsen, M.H. & Henriksen, H.Z. & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2002).

Proceedings of the 2nd Wuhan International Conference on E-Business (WHICEB 2002). October 19th-21st. Center of Academic Exchange, China University of GeoSciences, Wuhan, China, pp. 363-377.

During the last 3-5 years we have witnessed large numbers of e-business model failures. Although, some of the failures may be due to over-optimistic expectations to the new business, a significant portion of the failures may be explained with lack of knowledge among those responsible for the implementation. E-business models or Internet-enabled IT-systems for inter-organizational purposes cannot be implemented exclusively following the traditional guidelines in the IS/IT literature. The environment is much more dynamic, there are many more stakeholders, and development methods are different. The paper provides a framework highlighting important implementation factors of managerial concern. The issues raised in the framework builds upon studies of implementation factors derived from four relevant disciplines, i.e. venture capitalist experiences, business process reengineering, diffusion theory and system development. The contribution of the paper is a classification of implementation factors in a framework that identifies the managerial levers for implementation of e-business models that are characterized by goals, organizational structure, leadership, communications and incentives.

IS Innovation: Adoption of B2B e-Commerce

Henriksen, H.Z., Andersen, K.V., and Pedersen, T. (2002).

Monteiro, J.L., Swatman, P.M.C., and Tavares, L.V. (eds.). Towards the Knowledge Society: eCommerce, eBusiness and eGovernment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

A logistic regression analysis based on completed questionnaires from 135 companies within the Danish steel manufacturing and wholesale business segment suggests that "market positioning and power issues" along with "organizational issues" are the primary, positive drivers for adopting B2B e-commerce. Also, our study found that recommendations from business partners clearly had a negative influence on the adoption. Technical barriers were not found to be significant. Our results challenge the overall thinking of diffusion with respect to the need for 'muddling through' and technical capabilities. Finally, our study did not find any difference in adoption motives due to company size.


Brilliant Idea? But it didn't do the trick: The role of a designed project in the adoption and diffusion process of inter-organisational information systems

Kautz, K. and Henriksen, H.Z. (2002).

Bunker, D. Wilson, D., and Elliot, S. (eds.). The Adoption and Diffusion of IT in an Environment of Critical Change, proceedings of IFIP TCB WG 8.6. Pearson Publishing Service.

In this article we discuss the suitability of social and political processes as a frame for understanding adoption of inter-organisational information systems. Based on the analysis of a designed project that aimed at supporting the adoption and diffusion of an inter-organisational information system in a low-tech business sector we found that social processes cannot be completely planned in advance. It was found that the processes are influenced by cultural and political constraints that go beyond rational concerns.

Should New Fields of Research Tighthen their Belts to Get Organized? - The example of information systems research

Henriksen, H. Z. and Vendelø, M. T. (2003).

Paper the 19th EGOS Colloquium, Copenhagen, July 3. - 5. Subtheme 19: Science Organizations and the Organization of Science, pp. 1-22.

In recent decades we have witnessed the emergence of several new fields of research within social science, examples are: environmental management, information systems research, and knowledge management. The emergence of new fields of research raises some basic questions regarding how research institutions best organize their production of scientific knowledge in new fields. Should the new fields be thought of as new disciplines, and consequently, lead us to establish new organizational entities, or should they be thought of as aspects of existing disciplines, and thus, be integrated into existing organizational structures? And probably even more important; what can new fields of research do to justify that they need organizational homes on their own?

eProcurement Adoption: Theory and Practice

Henriksen, H.Z. and Andersen, K.V. (2003).

Traunmüller, R. (ed). Electronic Government. Second International Conference, EGOV 2003.

This paper addresses eProcurement adoption strategies in public sector institutions from four perspectives (capability, interactivity, value distribution, and orientation of the decisions). The paper analyzes eProcurement in the largest municipality (Copenhagen) in Denmark. Our analysis suggests that efficiency and effectiveness (capability), and improved coordination of private sector and public sector interaction (interactivity) are the drivers for the adoption strategy pursued by the municipality.

Public eProcurement: Economic and Political Rationality

Henriksen, H.Z., Mahnke, V. and Meiland, J.H. (2004).

Proceedings of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) 37, January 5-8, 2004.

eProcurement is on the political agenda throughout Europe. Denmark is among the forerunners with respect to establishing a public procurement portal. So far, the overall success of the public eProcurement portal has been limited. In this paper, we discuss possible explanations for the limited success. Our focus is on whether or not the underlying mechanisms and rationalities supporting electronic marketplaces in private business are present in the public sector. The paper suggests that efficiency explanations of electronic marketplaces should be considered alongside with specific political-structural elements that characterize the public sector.

IOS Adoption in Denmark: Explanatory aspects of organizational, environmental and technological attributes

Henriksen, H.Z. (2004).

Proceedings of the IFIP TC8 WG 8.6 conference, Leixlip, Ireland, pp. 313-334.

Adoption and especially non-adoption of technologies, which are believed to yield operational and strategic benefits for businesses, are not always easy to comprehend. In this study we have surveyed businesses in the Danish steel and machinery industry to get an insight into what motivates or de-motivates adoption of IOS exemplified by EDI. The reason for choosing this particular industry is that it has been a target for massive information campaigns concerning the potential benefits of EDI adoption. In accordance with the Tornatzky & Fleischer (1990) model for organizational adoption fifteen opinion data items related to organizational, environmental, and technological attributes were operationalized and analyzed. The study suggests that environmental and organizational attributes rather than technological attributes are the main determining forces for adoption of EDI.

Stray Dogs and Wild Cats Tracking Down Information Systems in Government?

Andersen, K.V., Henriksen, H.Z., Ahmed, A.S. and, Arnthorsson, H. (2004).

Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2004), Turku, Finland.

This paper explores the body of e-government research surfaced during 1998-2003 in Web of Science and ProQuest. The search identified 158 scholarly papers. Using a classification model developed by Andersen and Danziger (1995), the predominately part of the research addresses improvements of services and products (72%), better data access (67%) and public-Government interaction (64%). Less frequent are studies on values. Comparing data with literature review on the Golden Age of transformation of the public sector (1988-2000), the authors suggest that e-government so far has not altered the balance between existing domains of applications or introduced new areas.

Public Procurement in Denmark: Measurements of Suppliers' eMaturity

Henriksen, H.Z., Kerstens, D.Ø., and Andersen, K.V. (2004).

Proceedings of the 17th Bled eCommerce conference. Bled, Slovenia, June 21 - 23.

The paper introduces and evaluates a model for measuring the level of eCommerce maturity for suppliers to the public sector institutions in Denmark. The model comprises four distinct levels and seven parameters. These parameters are related to organizational and technological attributes relevant for eCommerce. Based on an empirical evaluation, it is found that the model is a useful tool for suppliers wanting to evaluate their level of eMaturity. Due to specific requirements from public sector customers it is argued that suppliers to the public sector have to possess a high level of eMaturity.

The Diffusion of eServices in Danish Municipalities

Henriksen, H. Z. (2004).

Proceedings of the 3rd. DEXA eGov conference, Zaragoza, Spain.

Among the European countries Denmark is ranked high with respect to on-line services. This paper presents a preliminary, exploratory analysis of variables supporting the diffusion of eServices in Danish municipalities. The objective of the study is to perform an explorative search for explanatory variables, which make municipalities adopt eServices, and specifically to gain an understanding of why some municipalities embrace eServices more extensively than others. Based on an analysis of quantitative data it is found that urbanization, population density, educational level of citizens, and increase in employment in the municipality appears to be the most significant explanatory factors supporting a high level of eService adoption.

Information Technology Diffusion Research: An Interim Balance

Kautz, K., Henriksen, H.Z., Breer-Mortensen, T. And Poulsen, H.H. (2005).

Proceedings of the IFIP TC8 WG 8.6 conference, Atlanta, US.

In this article we review the work of the IFIP TC8 WG 8.6 on Diffusion and Transfer of Information technology in the period 1993 - 2003. With a starting point in the working group's aim and scope declaration we analyze the 113 contributions which have been published in 7 conference proceedings of the group. While we can conclude that the group by and large works towards and within its own aim and scope declaration, we also find the group as of yet has no joint terminology and no shared theoretical basis. These are challenges which the group should take up in its future work.

Fooling around: the corporate jester as an effective change agent for technological innovation?

McMaster, T., Wastell, D. and Henriksen, H.Z. (2005).

Proceedings of the IFIP TC8 WG 8.6 conference, Atlanta, US.

In this reflective paper, we examine the roles and attributes of the change agent in the context of the organizational innovation adoption process. Various skills and qualities are required and expected for such a role, however wit and humor are not among those qualities typically emphasized in the subject literature. Yet these may be essential ingredients in the successful management of change. We examine the role of humour in the workplace in particular, as an empowerment tool on one hand, and as a display of subversion on the other. We note that the traditional role and attributes of the court jester exude those very qualities that might be missing in traditional descriptions of the change agent: deep insight, wit, and the ability to exert strong influence through humor. We consider the notion of the corporate jester and discuss whether such a role may hold any merit for the process of change management.

E-Procurement - Love of Life and Overnight Temptations

Moe, C. E., Andersen, K. V. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2005).

Andersen, K.V. et al. (eds.). Electronic Government. Workshop and Poster. Proceedings of the Fourth International EGOV Conference 2005, August 22-26, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 351-357.

E-procurement has been met with great optimism, as a mean both to achieve competitive prices and a mean to streamline procurement, lower administrative costs and get better overview. In order to examine if the expectations are realistic we have performed interviews with both suppliers and buyers. Based on data from a Norwegian electronic marketplace provider (IBX) and two users, a municipality and a county, the paper discusses the dilemma of misalignment between expectations and performance. Implementation has been slower than expected in Norway as it has in some other countries; the paper offers insight to what benefits local government does expect and possible reasons for this slow implementation. These results may be valuable input for implementation of e-procurement elsewhere.

Reorganizing Government: Bhutan Visa Online

Andersen, K. V. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2006).

Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2006, pp. 1-7.

Centralized government document infrastructure and a policy commitment to transform the tourism sector to a more vivid and efficient business sector works as drivers for implementing an online visa system in Bhutan. With only 10,000 visitors on a annual basis, Bhutan is nevertheless struggling to increase coordination and cooperation, interaction patterns, and organizational control. While governance principles for building online visa processing IT-systems are appealing to pursue, classical government concerns as accountability, security, and distribution of power are the primary drivers for the specifications of the system.

The Rise and Descent of Visions for e-Government

Henriksen, H. Z. and Damsgaard, D. (2006).

Proceedings of the IFIP 8.6. conference, June 7-10, 2006, Galway, Ireland, pp. 275-289.

Most nations have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fueling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less clear in policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of the Danish eDay initiative. The eDay initiative simply yet powerfully states that one governmental authority has the right to demand that its communication with another authority must be in electronic format. The eDay initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. Policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption based on indirect and pedagogical intervention in governmental agencies, but eDay marked a departure and the carrot has been exchanged by the stick and the voice is imperative.

The E-Government Melting Pot Lacking New Public Management and Innovation Flavor

Sannarnes, M. K., Henriksen, H. Z. and Andersen, K.V, (2006).

Proceedings of the DEXA eGov conference, Krakow, Poland.

The paper argues that e-government literature has by large not infused New Public Management (NPM) literature or innovation studies on e-government. Rather, e-government literature has used relative simple frameworks and observations from the NPM and innovation studies and applied them in studies of e-government implementation. Based on a literature review of 60 peer and double blind reviewed scientific studies, this paper argues that the domain has only been subject to research for about half a decade and that the domain is still unexplored in many aspects. One major absence is a lack of cross referencing of studies and limited number of cumulative studies on whether e-government can aid NPM or fuel innovation. However, the good news is that the literature review demonstrates that researchers entering the domain mainly base their research on empirical studies.

An Analysis of IFIP TC 8 WG 8.6 - In Search of a Common Theoretical Denominator

Henriksen, H. Z. And Kautz, K. (2006).

The Past and Future of Information Systems: 1976-2006 and Beyond. Davis Avison, Steve Elliot, John Krogstie, Jan Pries-Heje (eds.) pp. 143-152.

The IFIP TC 8 WG 8.6 focuses on the transfer and diffusion of information technology. Since the working group was established in 1993 there have been a number of events where members of the group have produced contributions analyzing transfer and diffusion of IT in different settings and from different perspectives. In this paper we report the result of an analysis of the theoretical perspectives the contributors have applied in the studies. Our analysis suggests that even though there is an even distribution of factor and process oriented studies reported in proceedings the theoretical denominator for the long standing members of WG 8.6 is the process oriented approach to the study of transfer and diffusion of IT.

The Challenges of EDI

Henriksen, H.Z. and Görsch, D. (1999).

Distributed multimedia - Electronic Commerce and Converging Media, CTI (Center for Tele Information), Danish Technical University.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) has been available for almost four decades and during that period of time many benefits of EDI have been extensively described in the literature. However, during the same period of time it was discovered that the use of EDI in the real world suffers from various drawbacks. For example, EDI is considered to be costly and rigid in structure. Moreover, the issue of standardization of EDI messages has caused many debates and still does not appear to be solved. Within this decade a number of alternatives to traditional EDI have been conceived. These approaches aim to solve the problems EDI is facing, but none of them seems to be able to provide a panacea. Considering also the large investments that have been made it is likely that traditional EDI will remain important in the future. However, it will be increasingly challenged by the new approaches, particularly those that utilize the Internet.

B2B e-Commerce Diffusion: The Efficacy of Institutional Discourse

Andersen, K.V. and Henriksen, H.Z. (2004).

Doukidis, G., Mylonopoulos, N. and Pouloudi, N. (eds), Social and Economic Transformation in the Digital Era, IDEA Group Publishing, London.

The chapter explores the role of institutional discourse in B2B e-commerce diffusion. Using the case of EDI in the Danish business environment, the analysis demonstrates a lack of active industry involvement and severe implications of the absence of larger users in the policy forum for the national EDI-strategy. Government branches and business associations formulated by and large the visions and strategies without direct involvement of the successful EDI-players or companies that were the intended adopters. As a possible consequence, the EDI diffusion has evolved by the same companies exchanging still more messages and type pf documents whereas the number of new companies adopting EDI has been fairly limited. The policy implications of the Danish EDI-case could be to have a more focused involvement of intended adopters of similar and future technologies that has high policy saliency.

Transfer of e-Participation Management: Budget Restrictions and Preferences

Andersen, K. V. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2006).

Traunmüller (ed.). Knowledge Transfor for eGovernment – Seeking Better eGovernment Solutions, Linz, Trauner Verlag, pp. 133-144.

This chapter addresses e-participation from a management perspective. Transfer of e-participation technologies can help serve many democratic motives and varies across the service and customer model, the elite model, the neo-republican, and cyber-democratic models. E-participation will have different rationalities in each of these models, although e-participation might lead to better governance and cost reduction of public services over time, the uncertainties of these effects, the externalities, and the challenges in measuring and capitalizing on e-participation, make it important to be aware of the administrative costs in transferring e-participation practices and techniques.

The Streamlining of Cross-Border Taxation Using IT - The Danish eExport Solution

Bjørn-Andersen, N., Razmerita, L. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2007).

Josef Makolm and Gerti Orthofer (eds.). E-Taxation: State & Perspectives. Linz, Trauner Verlag, 2007, pp. 195-206.

The objective of this chapter is to present the strategy which the Danish tax and customs administration have pursued to implement an e-customs solution. Focus is on the managerial and the technological perspectives. A new initiative supporting the submission of export statements in electronic format was launched March 1, 2006. The objective of this “e-export” solution is to streamline the paperwork related to export of goods from Denmark. This is done to meet EU regulations, to be up-front utilizing technologies and ensuring that the goals of European interoperability in export statements are achieved, thereby offering robust web-based solutions to its Danish businesses. The study of the diffusion rate of the e-customs solution among Danish businesses suggests that the most efficient means for massive diffusion is reached by direct force towards businesses.

E-Government Research: Capabilities, Interaction, Orientation and Values

Andersen, K. V. and Henriksen, H. Z. (2007).

Norris, D. F. (ed.). Current Issues and Trends in E-Government Research, Cybertech Publishing, Hersey, pp. 269-288.

A comprehensive analysis of 110 peer-reviewed journal papers suggests that the conceptual domains and application areas covered by e-government research focus predominantly on capabilities and interactions, whereas value distributions and policy orientations are largely ignored. Onwards, e-government research is more concerned with conceptualizing government and e-services, than exploring the governmental role in technology diffusion and the role IT plays in democracy and participation. The orientation of the e-government research is an indicator that the legacy of IS-research themes dominates the e-government research body. Interdisciplinary research involving core public administration research along with IS-research is yet to emerge. It is proposed that the field could be more unified if considering both the “e” and “government” of e-government.

Re-organizing Government using IT: The Danish model

Andersen, K. V., Henriksen, H. Z. and Rasmussen, E. B. (2007).

Nixon, P. G. and Koutrakou, V. N. (eds.). E-government in Europe: Re-booting the state, Routledge, London, pp. 103-118.

This chapter investigates the adoption and exploitation of IT in the Danish government. The Danish case is interesting due to the strategic commitment to face challenges and formulate explicit milestones for the success of e-government strategies. Through the presentation of four case of successful e-government implementation (taxation, the health sector, case handling and procurement), this chapter examines the governmental policies through the lenses of normative actions, economic incentives, knowledge transfer, and management practice. The chapter identifies a remarkable shift from using primarily knowledge transfer mechanisms towards direct normative policies.

Electronic records management systems implementation in the Pakistani local government

Henriksen, H. Z. and Andersen, K. V. (2008).

Records Management Journal, volume: 18, Issue: 1, pp. 40-52.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is first to present a case study where standardized case handling processes have been transferred from a manual system to an IT system, and then to demonstrate the implications of implementing an electronic records management system (ERMS) in an environment - the Punjabi province of Pakistan - which is unfamiliar with the features embedded in ERMS. Design-methodology-approach - The methodology is a case study with first hand data observations, meetings, log files and secondary data (reports). Findings - Although ERMS implementation to date has been limited, the ERMS has led to increased efficiency and effectiveness of the government, increased transparency and accountability in decision making, and enhanced delivery of efficient and cost effective public services to citizens. Furthermore, the case indicates that IT implementation challenges are universal rather than dependent on the nature of the country. Practical implications - Lack of adequate training and design of user interface are key indicators of the limited success of implementation of ERMS in the department under investigation. Power and control are major challenges in ERMS implementation in Pakistani government departments.
Originality/value - This paper investigates ERMS in local government in Pakistan, which is unfamiliar with the features embedded in ERMS.

Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom for e-Government

Tan, Y-H and Henriksen, H. Z. (2008).

In Bouwman, Bons, Hoogeweegen, Janssen, and Pronk (eds.) Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Essays in commemoration of prof. dr. René Wagenaar, pp. 223-235.

The emergence of e-government has reinforced the need for robust inter-organizational information systems to streamline data-exchange in relation to Government-to-Business e-government, where large amounts of data are exchanged on a regular basis. Streamlining and reducing the administrative burden is necessary to make companies competitive in the global economy. In this chapter, we elaborate on René’s concept of Integrated Service Delivery in relation to G-to-B e-government. We discuss the concept on the basis of empirical experiences from a Living Lab in the ITAIDE-project, and conclude that user-driven innovation is the optimal way to develop the necessary robust inter-organizational information systems supporting Integrated Service Delivery.

Multi-level Analysis of Complex IS Change: A Case Study of eCustoms

Rukanova, B., van Stijn, E., Henriksen, H. Z., Baida, Z, and Tan, Y-H (2008).

In proceedings of the 21th Bled eConference. eCollaboration: Overcoming Boundaries Through Multi-Channel Interaction, June 15 - 18, 2008; Bled, Slovenia.

Although much efforts have been devoted to understanding IS change processes that take place in a single organization, there is very little understanding about the change processes that affect IS decisions and developments across organizations. In this paper we provide a conceptual framework to analyze and explain complex multi-level IS change. To demonstrate the use of the framework we apply it to analyze changes in the domain of eCustoms, as in this domain we find rich examples of multi-level IS changes. The framework combines the work on "motors of change" by Van de Ven and Poole with Pettigrew’s notions of "vertical" and "horizontal" levels of analysis. Based on our case analysis we conclude that the conceptual framework proves to be a useful lens through which to analyze complex multi-level IS change. We propose extensions of the framework by identifying different interaction types between the changes and we outline directions for further research. In this respect, this paper can be seen as a contribution to the existing IOS research on change.


Henriksen, H. Z. and Rukanova, B. (2008).

In proceedings of 6th International Eastern European eGov Days, Prague, 23th-25th April 2008, pp. 327-334.

The paper presents the initial stage of a syntegrity workshop where participants were asked to define what they find to be major drivers and barriers for eCustoms implementation. The data from the workshop indicates that technology is not the core concern. This suggests that technology is seen as more a means than an end in relation to eCustoms implementation.


Wilson, F., Henriksen, H. Z., Kordelaar, P., Mulder, B., van Engers, T, and Zuurmond, A. (2008).

In proceedings of 6th International Eastern European eGov Days, Prague, 23th-25th April 2008, pp. 281-286.

The trend towards more online and interoperable governmental services and background processes introduces challenges for trainers and educators working with governments. The immediacy and connectedness of electronic services and processes causes government actors to be more directly involved as organisers and managers of services and processes linking directly with citizens and business. Rapid of change brings a challenge to eGovernment actors and educators to bridge the resulting knowledge and skills gap. A group of universities and government trainers have developed and piloted a master class in eGovernment education addressing this problem. Latest methods, tools and content were used to allow assessment of best approaches and future directions. The master class was delivered to eGovernment trainers from government organisations in 10 countries, including 7 from Eastern Europe. This paper reports on that activity and its results.